Sometimes, less is more. A photograph includes everything that the camera takes in, and that can make for a jumbled, cluttered picture. This can be fixed through the use of framing, along with lighting and focus, to simplify the photo. You can adjust the perspective and what is included in the photo so that only the things you need to have in the picture are in it. Don’t be afraid to have empty space be part of the picture! A photo that includes a few, or even just one object of attention can be very powerful. The ratio of empty space to objects of attention should be no more than about three to one, but that is acceptable; the entire picture doesn’t need to be filled up.

One rule about empty space to keep in mind is that a moving object should have more empty space in front of it than behind it. If there is not much space shown in front of the moving object, it gives the impression that it’s going to crash.(Like all rules in photography, however, this one has exceptions. It can be useful to make the picture look as if the moving object is going to crash – into the viewer, for example, or to create that effect for a different reason. Always be aware that that is what you are doing, though.)When you are photographing a main subject that has eyes (a person or animal), most of the time you will want to obtain eye contact. Even if the picture you are taking is one where the subject is looking away from the camera, making eye contact first so as to put your focus on the same level as the subject’s eyes, and then having the subject look away to take the actual photo, is a good technique. It creates a greater level of identification between the viewer and the subject by putting the subject on the viewer’s eye level (as the position is perceived when viewing the photo).There are exceptions to this rule as well. These exceptions come when the subject with eyes is not the main focus of the photo, for example when a person or animal is in the picture to give size perspective to something else that is the main focus of attention. It’s a good idea to learn how to follow the rules first before learning how to break them, though, and this one is no exception.